1885 - 1900 Issues



1885 STAMP DUTY Overprint
Dull Orange Yellow - wmk V1

The 1883 Post Office Act required that all stamps bear the inscription STAMP DUTY, effective January 1, 1885. To comply, some denominations were overprinted. One such example is the Three Pence Laureate.

A very small quanitity of old stock watermarked V1 were overprinted. These are in a dull orange yellow shade, comb perforated 12½. This is a very rare stamp. Kellow suggests that about six copies may be known

Does anyone have a scan to offer?

1885 STAMP DUTY Overprints
Yellow Orange - wmk V2

The overwhelming majority of the overprinted Three Pence issue came from the printings of 1883 on paper watermarked V2, comb perforated 12.

The first shade found is yellow orange.

1885 STAMP DUTY Oveprints
Dull Brown Orange - wmk V2

The second shade seen on the paper watermarked V2 is dull brownish orange, also perforated 12½. The two shades are about equal in scarcity.

1885 STAMP DUTY Overprints
Rose Red - wmk V2

The Four Pence Naish design was overprinted in November 1885 with the words STAMP DUTY in blue. The genuine issues are all watermarked V2 (upright only), perforated 12 and in a rose red shade, which can be separated from the shade shown below.

BEWARE the 1895 reprint shown below...

1895 Unofficial Reprint
Dull Rose Red - wmk V2

In 1895, an unofficial reprint was issued which closely resembles the original, genuine issue.

The reprint was printed from the genuine printing plates with the correct overprint, comb perforated 12½ and watermarked V2, the same as the genuine issue.

One half of the reprints have inverted watermarks, however, which is never found in the genuine issues and they are printed in a distinctively dull shade which can be separated.

1885 STAMP DUTY Overprints
Pale Blue - wmk V2

The One Shilling Bell design was overprinted with the words STAMP DUTY in black and issued in February 1885.

Most of the examples found are from the pale blue printing of 1884 perforated 13, however, examples in shades from earlier printings are found.

1885 STAMP DUTY Overprints
Deep Blue - wmk V2

Deep blue shades are found with the overprint which came from earlier printings of the One Shilling Bell. Only perforation 13 is found.

1885 STAMP DUTY Overprinted in Blue
Pale Blue on blue - wmk V1

This issue is known with a blue overprint, which was probably experimental and rejected because the blue overprint blended into the blue background.

Kellow suggests that about 8 postally used examples and another 35-40 fiscally used copies are known.

Be wary of fakes....see below.

1885 STAMP DUTY Overprinted in Blue
RARE Postally Used Example

Kellow records only 8 postally used examples with the blue STAMP DUTY overprint. All examples are cancelled with barred numeral 138 of Hexmark. The overprint is so faint that it is barely visible against the blue background of the stamp design, (STAMP portion of the overprint in this example is mostly obliterated by the cancellation).

This example was discovered May 2006 in a Barred Numeral collection - the overprint is so subtle it had evaded detection - the BN138 was the key to its discovery...

1895 Unofficial Reprint
Pale Blue - wmk V2

An unofficial reprint of this issue was printed in 1895. Mint copies of the reprint seem to be much more plentiful than for the genuine issue.

The reprinted issue is on paper watermarked V2 (unlike the genuine issue which is on V1 paper), with half of the watermarks being inverted (the genuine issue only has upright watermarks).

1885 STAMP DUTY - Blue Overprint FORGERY
Pale Blue on blue - wmk V1

Forgeries of this rarity are seen and many can be quite convincing. In genuine examples, the words STAMP and DUTY are 15-16mm apart, the letter font has no serifs or adornments, and the impression of the overprint is clear, with precisely formed letters.

The underlying stamp in this example is genuine, but the overprinted words STAMP and DUTY are 9mm apart in this example and the impression of the letters is blurred.

EXTREME caution is advised...

1885 STAMP DUTY - Black Overprint FORGERY
Pale Blue on blue - wmk V1

Since the genuine black overprint is relatively common, there is less motivation to forge that overprint, but they are found.

In the example shown, the words STAMP and DUTY are too close together to be from the genuine overprinted issue.

Close examination and comparison to known genuine copies is advised...

1885 STAMP DUTY Overprint
Ultramarine on green - wmk V1

The overprinted Two Shilling Bell design was issued in March 1885. These are perforated 12½, watermarked V1 (upright or sideways). The words STAMP and DUTY are closer together in this issue than is the case with the One Shilling.




Naish Design
Rosine - wmk V2

The rosine shade, comb perforated 12½, on paper watermarked V2 was issued in January 1885.

Naish Design
Deep Rosine - wmk V2

The next shade was deep rosine, on the same paper watermarked V2, perforated 12½, issued in July 1885.

Naish Design
Salmon - wmk V2

Salmon was issued in September 1885, watermarked V2, perforated 12½.

Naish Design - 1891 Reprint for UPU
Rose on pink - wmk V2

The halfpenny Naish design was reprinted in 1891 for the UPU. Most were overprinted with the word Reprint in italics, but some were issued without the overprint. The reprints were also watermarked V2, but 50% of them have an inverted watermark which does not occur in the original issue.


Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Lilac Grey - wmk V2

The Fergusson & Mitchell design appeared in August 1886, printed in lilac grey, watermarked V2 (sideways), and perforated 12.

For these issues, which are printed in landscape mode, the normal orientation of the watermarks is sideways (left or right).

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Deep Lilac Grey - wmk V2

A deep lilac grey shade is found from these printings, watermakred V2 (sideways) and perforated 12½..

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Pink - wmk V2

The color changed in the February 1887 printing to pink. These were watermarked V2 sideways, and perforated 12½.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Rosine - wmk V2

The 1889 issued was in aniline rosine shades, perforated 12 and watermarked V2.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Rose Red - wmk V2

Rose red appeared in the 1891 printings, watermarked V2, perforated 12½.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Vermillion - wmk V2

Vermillion shades were printed in 1896, watermarked V2 sideways, and perforated 12½.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Light Scarlet - wmk V3

The printing in July 1896 was on the new paper watermarked V3 (sideways). This printing was light scarlet, perforated 12½.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Carmine Rose - wmk V3

Carmine rose was printed on the V3 paper in 1897, perforated 12½.

Fergusson & Mitcell Design
Deep Carmine Rose - wmk V3

The printing in 1899 was in deep carmine rose, having a somewhat stark appearance. These are perforated 12 and watermarked V3(sideways). Occasionally, upright watermarks are found.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Emerald - wmk V3

The color of this stamp changed once again, with the August 1899 printing. The new color was emerald, perforated 12½, watermarked V3, sideways.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Emerald - wmk V4

The emerald printing of December 1899 was on paper watermarked V4 (sideways). These are perforated 12½ only.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Blue Green - wmk V4

The final printings of the Fergusson & Mitchell halfpenny were in blue green on the paper watermarked V4 (upright or sideways), perforated 12½.

The Commonwealth design replaced this stamp in January 1901.



Naish Design
Yellow Green - wmk V2

The Naish One Penny with the STAMP DUTY inscription was issued in January 1885 in a yellow green, watermarked V2 and comb perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Dull Pea Green - wmk V2

The February 1885 printing was in dull pea green, watermarked V2 and perforated 12½.

Naish Design - 1891 Reprint for the UPU
Yellowish Green - wmk V2

The One Penny Naish design was reprinted for the UPU in 1891 on paper watermarded V2, and perforated 12 in a yellow green shade. Typically the reprints were issued with the word Reprint overprinted in italics, but some were issued without the overprint - they would be very difficult to separate from the genuine issues.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Green - wmk V2

The Fergusson & Mitchell design replaced the Naish design in July 1886. They were printed in green, perforated 12½ on paper watermarked V2.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Yellow Green - wmk V2

Yellow green was issued in 1887, on the same paper watermarked V2, and perforated 12½.

Reading Design
Dull Chestnut - wmk V2

The Reading design replaced the Fergusson & Mitchell design in January 1890. The first shade seen is a dull chestnut, perforated 12½ on paper watermarked V2.

The shades on the one penny Reading are many, and the differences often subtle. Proper segregation of all listed shades can be a challenge.

Reading Design
Deep Red Brown - wmk V2

Deep red brown shades appear in the printings later in 1890.

Reading Design
Orange Brown - wmk V2

Orange Brown appears in the later 1890 printings.

Reading Design
Brown Red - wmk V2

Brown red is also introduced in late 1890.

Reading Design
Yellow Brown - wmk V2

Yellow brown shades are introduced in the 1891 printings.

Reading Design
Bright Yellow Orange - wmk V2

Bright yellow orange is a scarce shade and care must be taken to properly identify it. These were issued in 1893 on paper watermarked V2, perforated 12½. Unused copies, especially, seem to be scarce.

Reading Design
Brown Orange - wmk V2

Brown orange was printed in 1894. Shade differences can be subtle, and dated copies can be very helpful in ascertaining the proper identification of shades.

Reading Design - Emergency Printing
Orange Brown on pink - wmk V2

In June 1891, a paper shortage forced officials to make an emergency printing on old pink paper stock watermarked V1. It is orange brown, perforated 12.

Unlike many emergency printings, the numbers issued here were significant, and this remains a common stamp.

Reading Design
Brown Red - wmk V3

The first printing on the new paper watermarked V3 was brown red, perforated 12½.

Reading Design
Brownish Orange - wmk V3

Brownish orange printings occurred in 1897, watermarked V3 and perforated 12½.

Reading Design
Rose Red - wmk V4

The printings made on the paper watermarked V4 were in distinctive reddish shades, making them very easy to extract.

The rose red shade on paper watermarked V4 was issued in August 1899, perforated 12.

Reading Design
Rosine - wmk V4

A distinct rosine shade occurs in the 1900 printings.

Reading Design
Olive - wmk V4

The olive shade on paper watermarked V4 was issued on June 6, 1901, just 21 days prior to the change in the law that required postage stamps to have the word POSTAGE inscribed in the design. This stamp was, therefore, available for postage usage for only 25 days!

Considering its' short life as a postage stamp, this is not particularly rare. It continued to be used for fiscal purposes after July 1901.

Copies are perforated 12½.



Sands & McDougall Design
Apple Green - wmk V3

The Sands & McDougall design was issued in October 1897 in apple green, watermarked V3 (sideways) and comb perforated 12½.

The design was modified to include POSTAGE, and issued in brown red shades during the 1901-1912 period.



Naish Design
Lilac - wmk V2

Naish had designed the Two Pence stamp issued in 1882. He redesigned it for the Stamp Duty era as shown.

The first printing of this stamp was in January 1885, in lilac, watermarked V2, and perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Mauve - wmk V2

A mauve shade was printed in 1886, perforated 12½ on the paper watermarkd V2.

Naish Design
Rosy Mauve - wmk V2

Rosy mauve was issued later in 1886.

1891 Reprint for the UPU
Lilac - wmk V2

The Two Pence Naish design was reprinted in 1891 for the UPU. These were printed on paper watermarked V2, perforated 12 in lilac. Most were issued with the word Reprint in italics, but some were issued without the overprint.

The reprint has equal numbers with watermark upright or inverted, however, the original issues only have the watermark upright.

Modified Naish Design
Pale Lilac - wmk V2

The Naish design was modified as shown and printed in pale lilac in December 1886. These were on paper watermarked V2 and perforated 12½.

Modified Naish Design
Pale Mauve - wmk V2

Pale mauve was issued in 1887.

Modified Naish Design
Deep Lilac - wmk V2

Deep lilac first appeared in the 1888 printings.

Modified Naish Design
Purple - wmk V2

Purple was issued in 1894.

Modified Naish Design
Violet - wmk V2

Violet appeared in 1895, on the paper watermarked V2, perforated 12½.

Modified Naish Design - RARE Imperforate Variety
Violet - wmk V2

A previously unrecorded example of the very rare imperforate variety of this stamp.

Kellow states that several examples are recorded of this variety, apparently from two different sources.

BEWARE - suspected examples should be authenticated.

Modified Naish Design
Violet - wmk V3

The first printings on the new paper watermarked V3 were in violet, perforated 12½.

Modified Naish Design
Violet - wmk V4

Printings on paper watermarked V4 commenced in July 1899 in shades of violet, all perforated 12½.


Tannenberg Design
Red Brown on lemon - wmk V2

The first printing of the Tannenberg design for the Twopence Halfpenny was in January 1891, in red brown on a lemon tinted paper, watermarked V2. All copies are perforated 12.

Tannenberg Design
Brown Red on lemon - wmk V2

The brown red printings were issued in 1892,perforated 12½.

Tannenberg Design
Red on yellow - wmk V2

A red shade on the yellow paper was issued in 1893.

Tannenberg Design
Blue - wmk V3

The first printing on the new paper watermarked V3 was in blue, on the regular white paper watermarked V2, perforated 12½.

Tannenberg Design
Blue - wmk V4

In October 1899, the printing was in blue, on paper watermarked V4, perforated 12½.


Naish Design
Yellow Brown - wmk V2

The Naish design was first issued in January 1885 in yellow brown, on paper watermarkd V2, and perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Pale Ochre - wmk V2

Pale ochre was issued in September 1886, watermarked V2 and perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Bistre Yellow - wmk V2

Bistre yellow was issued in September 1892, watermarked V2 and perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Ochre - wmk V3

The first printing on the new paper watermarked V3 was issued in November 1896, in ochre, perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Buff - wmk V3

A printing in buff was issued in 1898 on the V3 paper, perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Bistre Yellow - wmk V4

A printing in bistre yellow, on paper watermarked V4, was issued in September 1899, perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Slate Green - wmk V4

A color change was issued on June 1, 1901, a month before the new regulations that required the inscription of the word POSTAGE in all postage stamp designs.

These are in slate green, watermarked V4 and perforated 12. Usage continued after June 1901 for fiscal purposes.


Naish Design
Magenta - wmk V2

The Naish Four Pence design was issued in January 1885 in magenta, watermarked V2 and perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Bright Magenta Rose - wmk V2

The printing in December 1886 was in a distinctive bright mauve shade, watermarked V2 and perforated 12½.

Naish Design - RARE Lilac Error
Lilac - wmk V2

In December 1886, 50 sheets (6000 stamps) were printed, by mistake, in a lilac shade that very closely resembled the color used for the Two Pence stamp.

Kellow states that about 50 copies are known, including 9 unused copies.

Beware of faded or chemically altered examples - authentication is advised.

Naish Design - Lilac Error Look-Alike
Faded Magenta - wmk V2

A number of copies have been seen with a faded magenta shade (faded or chemically altered?) which could easily be mis-identified as the rare Lilac shade. These can be segregated by the pinkish quality in the coloration, which is not detected in the true lilac shade. The lilac shade, by contrast, has a violet quality to the color.

BEWARE - authentication is advised...

Naish Design - 1891 Reprint for UPU
Magenta - wmk V2

The Four Pence Naish design was reprinted in 1891 for the UPU. These were also printed on paper watermarked V2, perforated 12 in magenta. Most were issued with the word Reprint in italics, but some were issued without the overprint. The reprint has equal numbers with watermark upright or inverted, however, the original issues only have the watermark upright.

Naish Design
Rose Red - wmk V2

The Naish design was modified with a light background and subsequent printings were in reddish shades.

The first printing of the modified design, in rose red, was issued in April 1887, on paper watermarked V2, comb perforated 12½.

Modified Naish Design
Red - wmk V2

Red appeared in the January 1893 printing, watermarked V2 and perforated 12½.

Modified Naish Design
Red - wmk V3


In June 1897, the printing was on paper watermarked V3, in red, and perforated 12½.

Modified Naish Design
Rose Red - wmk V4

Printings on the paper watermarked V4 commenced in December 1899, in a light rose red, perforated 12.


Tannenberg Design
Purple Brown - wmk V2

The Five Pence Tannenberg design was introduced in January 1891, in purple brown, watermarked V2, perforated 12½.

Tannenberg Design
Pale Red Brown - wmk V2

Pale reddish brown appeared in the 1893 printings, perforated 12½, and watermarked V2.

Tannenberg Design
Red Brown - wmk V3

Printings on paper watermarked V3 were first issued in July 1897, in red brown, perforated 12½.

Tannenberg Design
Red Brown - wmk V4

Printings on paper watermarked V4 appeared in October 1899, in red brown, perforated 12½.


Naish Design
Chalky Blue - wmk V2

The Naish Six Pence design was issued in January 1885 in chalky blue, watermarked V2 and perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Bright Blue - wmk V2

A bright blue shade was issued in March 1885, perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Cobalt - wmk V2

Cobalt blue was issued in July 1885, watermarked V2, perforated 12½.

Naish Design - 1891 Reprint for the UPU
Chalky Blue - wmk V2

The Six Pence Naish design was reprinted for the UPU in 1891 on paper watermarked V2, and perforated 12½ in a chalky blue shade.

Typically the reprints were issued with the word Reprint overprinted in italics, but some were issued without the overprint.

The blue shade of the reprint has a milkier appearance than the original, and the reprints had equal numbers of watermarks upright or inverted, while the original issues are only found with upright watermarks.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Bright Ultramarine - wmk V2

The Fergusson & Mitchell Six Pence was first issued in August 1886, in bright ultramarine, watermarked V2, and perforated 12½.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Pale Ultramarine - wmk V2

Pale ultramarine appeared in the 1887 printings.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Dull Blue - wmk V2

Dull blue was issued in 1891, watermarked V2, perforated 12½.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Dull Blue - wmk V3

The first issue on the paper watermarked V3 was issued in September 1896, in dull blue, perforated 12½.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Dull Ultramarine - wmk V4

The first printings on paper watermarked V4 appeared in January 1900, in a dull ultramarine shade, perforated 12½


Naish Design
Rose on pink - wmk V1

The Eight Pence Naish design was issued in January 1885, in a rose shade on pink paper watermarked V1, and perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Rose Red on pink - wmk V1

The color changed to rose red with the February 1888 printing, on paper watermarked V1, perforated 12.

Naish Design
Bright Scarlet on pink - wmk V2

The next printings were in bright scarlet, issued in March 1895, on pink paper watermarked V2, and perforated 12½.


Bell Design
Apple Green - wmk V2

The Bell design was resurrected and issued in apple green in October 1893, watermarked V2, comb perforated 12.

It is interesting to note that the stamp design did not include the words STAMP DUTY, despite the regulations requiring it.

Watermarks are found in equal numbers upright and inverted.

Bell Design
Carmine Rose - wmk V2

The color was changed to carmine rose for the October 1895 printing, issued on paper watermarked V2, perforated 12½.

Bell Design
Rosine - wmk V2

The March 1896 printing was in a rosine shade, on the V2 paper, perforated 12½.

Bell Design
Rosine - wmk V3

The rosine shade was printed on the paper watermarked V3 in August 1896, perforated 12½.

Bell Design
Rose Carmine - wmk V3

Rose carmine appeared on the V3 paper in the 1898 printings, perforated 12½.

Bell Design
Dull Rose - wmk V3

The third shade seen on the paper watermarked V3 is a dull rose, also perforated 12.

Bell Design
Rose Red - wmk V4

All of the printings on the paper watermarked V4, commencing September 1899, were in a rose red shade, perforated 12 only.


Naish Design
Deep Dull Blue on yellow - wmk V1

The new Naish design for the One Shilling stamp was issued in November 1885 on paper watermarked V1. It was printed in a deep dull blue shade on yellow paper, comb perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Dull Blue on yellow - wmk V1

The June 1886 printings were in dull blue, on yellow paper watermarked V1, perforated 12.

Naish Design - 1891 Reprints for the UPU
Deep Dull Blue - wmk V1

The One Shilling Naish design was reprinted in 1891 for the UPU. Most were overprinted with the word Reprint in italics, but some were issued without the overprint.

The reprints were watermarked V2, and 50% of them have an inverted watermark which does not occur in the original issue.


Fergussone & Mitchell Design
Dull Purple Brown - wmk V2

The Fergusson & Mitchell design was first printed in March 1887, in dull purple brown, watermarked V2 and comb perforated 12.

The normal orientation of the watermarks in the stamps printed in landscape mode is sideways (either left or right).

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Lake - wmk V2

The February 1890 printings were in lake, watermarked V2 and perforated 12½.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Carmine Lake - wmk V2

Carmine lake appeared in the April 1892 printing, perforated 12½

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Brownish Red - wmk V2

Brownish red shades were issued in 1896, on paper watermarked V2 and perforated 12½.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Brownish Red - wmk V3

The first printing on the paper watermarked V3 was issued in February 1897, in brownish red and comb perforated 12½.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Brown Red - wmk V4

A single printing on the paper watermarked V4 (sideways) was issued in May 1900, in a brown red shade, comb perforated 12½.



Naish Design
Pale Blue - wmk V2

A new Naish design was adopted for a One Shilling Sixpence stamp. It was issued in blue, on paper watermarked V2 in September 1888.

Naish Design
Orange - wmk V2

The color was changed to orange for the second printing, which was issued in September 1889. It was printed on paper watermarkd V2, and comb perforated 12.

Naish Design
Red Orange - wmk V2

Red orange appeared in 1893, watermarked V2 and perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Brown Orange - wmk V3

In July 1989 a printing on paper watermarked V3 was issued. The color is brown orange, perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Orange - wmk V4

The final printings were issued in February 1900, in an orange shade, on paper watermarked V4 and perforated 12½.


Naish Design
Olive Green on green - wmk V2

The new Two Shilling stamp designed by Charles Naish was issued in December 1885, in shades of olive, on a green paper watermarked V1, and comb perforated 12.

Naish Design
Apple Green on pale green - wmk V2

The next printing was on a very pale green paper watermarked V2. The stamp was printed in apple green, comb perforated 12.

Postally used copies with a contemporary cancellation are much more rare than mint.

Naish Design
Blue Green - wmk V2

The next shade seen on the V2 paper is blue green. It was issued in October 1895, perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Blue Green - wmk V3

The printings on paper watermarked V3 were issued in April 1897, in a blue green shade, and comb perforated 12½.

Naish Design
Blue Green - wmk V4

The final printing was issued in June 1900, on paper watermarked V4, in blue green, perforated 12½.


Fergusson & Mitchell DesignPale Blue and Maroon - wmk V2

A single printing was made of this stamp in December 1886, watermarked V2 and line perforated 12½.

Genuine postal usage may be doubtful - caution is advised.

Copies perforated 11 and watermarked V4 are post 1900 printings, which were used for fiscal purposes only.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Yellow and Pale Blue - wmk V2

A single printing was made of this stamp in April 1887, watermarked V2 and line perforated 12.

Genuine postal usage of this value is doubtful - caution is advised.

Copies perforated 11 and watermarked V4 are post 1900 printings, which were used for fiscal purposes only.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Rosine and Black - wmk V2

A single printing was made of this stamp in October 1889, watermarked V2 and line perforated 12.

Genuine postal usage of this issue is doubtful - caution is advised.

Copies perforated 11 and watermarked V4 are post 1900 printings, which were used for fiscal purposes only.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Mauve and Brown Orange - wmk V2

A single printing was made of this stamp in August 1890, watermarked V2 and line perforated 12.

Genuine postal usage of this issue is doubtful - caution is advised.

Copies perforated 11 and watermarked V4 are post 1900 printings, which were used for fiscal purposes only.

Fergusson & Mitchell Design
Apple Green and Rosine - wmk V2

A single printing was made of this stamp in August 1888, watermarked V2 and line perforated 12.

Genuine postal usage of this issue is doubtful - caution is advised.

Copies perforated 11 and watermarked V4 are post 1900 printings, which were used for fiscal purposes only.


The Stamps of Victoria, by G.Kellow, B&K Publishing, 1990.

A Subject Index of Victorian Philately, by G.Kellow, Royal Philatelic Society of Victoria, 1988

The Encyclopedia of British Empire Postage Stamps, Vol IV, by Robson Lowe Ltd., 1962

Stanley Gibbons Stamp Catalogue, Part 1, British Commonwealth,Stanley Gibbons Ltd., (2002).

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